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- Hope Diamond
- The symbolic meaning of (en)Visionography – Fine art photography as “self-portraiture”
Never had an African-American received such universal praise across racial lines. Heavyweight champion for a record twelve When Joe Louis — knocked out the German boxer Max Schmeling in in two minutes and four seconds, the entire nation—black and white—celebrated the "fight of the century" as a victory of the United States against the ominous tide of Nazism. Heavyweight champion for a record twelve years from to , Louis opened the doors for such future black athletes as Jackie Robinson, Sugar Ray Robinson, and Muhammad Ali.
Joe Louis depicts the prizefighter's life, and the times in which he lived, from his childhood in a sharecropper's cabin in Alabama and his formative years in Detroit, to his legendary career, his service in the Army, his stint as a professional wrestler after retiring from boxing in , and his professional demise as an official greeter for a Las Vegas casino.
Along the way, Richard Bak compassionately, yet evenhandedly, details Louis's private vices: incessant womanizing, reckless spending habits, massive debts to the IRS, and drug abuse.
Julius Gaw: The Great Black Hope | dellitotohyd.cf
Filled with over one hundred photographs, including twenty-two in color, Joe Louis is the most comprehensive portrait yet written of one of the greatest African-American heroes who used his fists figuratively—and literally—to fight racism. Get A Copy. Paperback , pages. More Details Original Title.
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Oct 26, Sunny rated it it was amazing Shelves: sports. A nice biography of the life and career of Joe Louis. Predictably, much detail is given to the account of his boxing career; not as much about his post-ring career. Much emphasis was given to Joe's status in American society and his historical implications. A well-done book. Adam rated it really liked it Jul 29, Student 11 rated it it was amazing Nov 06, Despite persistent racial discrimination and violence in many of these places, African Americans retreated there to relax and sometimes work, reconnecting with southern identities and lifestyles they had left behind.
Between and , hundreds of thousands of African Americans moved away from the South to begin new lives in the urban North. In Chicago alone, the black population quintupled to more than , in a quarter century. Most historians map the integration of southern and northern black culture through labor, religion, politics, and popular culture.
The king had the stone set on a cravat -pin. The diamond became the property of his grandson Louis XVI. A likely scenario is that the French Blue , sometimes also known as the Blue Diamond ,  was "swiftly smuggled to London" after being seized in in Paris. One report suggested that the cut was a "butchered job" because it sheared off Previously, the dimensions of the French Blue had been known only from two drawings made in and ; although the model slightly differs from the drawings in some details, these details are identical to features of the Hope Diamond , allowing CAD technology to digitally reconstruct the French Blue around the recut stone.
It also confirmed the diamond underwent a rather rough recut that removed the three points and reduced the thickness by a few millimeters.
For Horror Addicts, By Horror Addicts.
The Sun King 's blue diamond became unrecognizable and the baroque style of the original cut was definitely lost. In a contrasting report, historian Richard Kurin speculated that the "theft" of the French Crown Jewels was in fact engineered by the revolutionary leader Georges Danton as part of a plan to bribe an opposing military commander, Duke Karl Wilhelm of Brunswick. Although Caroline was the wife of the Prince Regent George later George IV of the United Kingdom , she lived apart from her husband, and financial straits sometimes forced her to quietly sell her own jewels to support her household.
Caroline's nephew, Duke Karl Friedrich , was later known to possess a This smaller diamond's present whereabouts are unknown, and the recent CAD reconstruction of the French Blue fits too tightly around the Hope Diamond to allow for the existence of a sister stone of that size. A blue diamond with the same shape, size, and color as the Hope Diamond was recorded by John Francillon in the possession of the London diamond merchant Daniel Eliason in September , the earliest point when the history of the Hope Diamond can be definitively fixed,   although a second less definitive report claims that the Hope Diamond's "authentic history" can only be traced back to There are conflicting reports about what happened to the diamond during these years.
Eliason's diamond may have been acquired by George IV of the United Kingdom ,  possibly through Caroline of Brunswick ;  however, there is no record of the ownership in the Royal Archives at Windsor, although some secondary evidence exists in the form of contemporary writings and artwork, and George IV tended to mix up the Crown property of the Crown Jewels with family heirlooms and his own personal property.
A source at the Smithsonian suggested there were "several references" suggesting that George had, indeed, owned the diamond. Another report states that the king's debts were "so enormous" that the diamond was probably sold through "private channels". In , the Hope Diamond appeared in a published catalog of the gem collection of Henry Philip Hope, who was a member of the same Anglo-Dutch banking family. After falling into the ownership of the Hope family, the stone came to be known as the "Hope Diamond". Henry Philip Hope died in , the same year as the publication of his collection catalog.
His three nephews, the sons of Thomas and Louisa, fought in court for ten years over his inheritance, and ultimately the collection was split up. The oldest nephew, Henry Thomas Hope , received eight of the most valuable gems, including the Hope Diamond. It was displayed in the Great Exhibition of London in and at the Exposition Universelle in Paris , but was usually kept in a bank vault.
When Hope died on December 4, , his wife Anne Adele inherited the gem, but she feared that the profligate lifestyle of her son-in-law might cause him to sell the Hope properties. Upon Adele's death in , the entire Hope estate, including the Hope Diamond, was entrusted to Henrietta's younger son, Henry Francis Pelham-Clinton , on the condition that he add the name of "Hope" to his own surnames when he reached the age of legal majority.
As Lord Francis Hope, this grandson received his legacy in However, he had only a life interest in his inheritance, meaning that he could not sell any part of it without court permission. Lord Francis lived beyond his means, and this eventually caught up with him, leading to marriage troubles and financial reverses, and he found that he had to sell the diamond. In , the financial situation had changed, and after a "long legal fight,"  he was given permission to sell the Hope Diamond by an order of the Master in Chancery  to "pay off debts".
Like many jewelry firms, the Frankel business ran into financial difficulties during the depression of and referred to the gem as the "hoodoo diamond. A contrary report, however, suggested that Sultan Abdul Hamid did own the gem but ordered Habib to sell it when his throne "began to totter.
She recalled later that Cartier "held before our eyes the Hope Diamond. Cartier had it reset. She found the stone much more appealing in this new modern style. There were conflicting reports about the sale in the New York Times ; one account suggested that the young McLean couple had agreed to purchase the diamond, but after having learned about its unfortunate supposed history, the couple had wanted to back out of the deal  since they knew nothing of the "history of misfortunes that have beset its various owners.
Both Ned McLean and his pretty wife are quite young, and in a way unsophisticated, although they were born and reared in an atmosphere of wealth and luxury. All their lives they have known more of jewelry, finery, banquets, automobiles, horses, and other articles of pleasure than they have of books, with their wealth of knowledge.
The brouhaha over the diamond's supposed "ill luck" prompted a worried editor of The Jewelers' Circular-Weekly to write:. No mention of any ill luck having befallen Eliason, Hope, or any of their descendants was ever made. The Frankels surely were very prosperous while the stone was in their possession, as were the dealers who held it in Europe.
Habib's misfortune referred to in the newspaper accounts occurred long after he had sold the stone As Francis Hope never had the stone and May Yohe probably never saw it An alternative scenario is that the McLeans may have fabricated concern about the supposed "curse" to generate publicity to increase the value of their investment. A description was that the gemstone "lay on a bed of white silk and surrounded by many small white diamonds cut pear shaped". McLean wore it to a "brilliant reception" in February when it was reported that it was the first time it had been worn in public since it had "changed owners.
The symbolic meaning of (en)Visionography – Fine art photography as “self-portraiture”
The Hope Diamond in its original pendant must have looked fantastic at parties circa the s, when it hung around the neck of owner Evalyn Walsh McLean's Great Dane, Mike. There were reports that she misplaced it at parties,  deliberately and frequently, and then make a children's game out of "finding the Hope", and times when she hid the diamond somewhere on her estate during the "lavish parties she threw and invite guests to find it. William Schindele, a former Secret Service man, has been engaged to guard the stone.
He in turn will be guarded by Leo Costello and Simeon Blake, private detectives. The stone will be kept at the McLean mansion during the day and each night will be deposited in a safe deposit vault. When Mrs. McLean wears the gem at balls and receptions arrangements have been made to keep the safe deposit building open until after the function that the stone may be safely stored away. A special automobile has been purchased to convey the guards to and from the house to the trust company's building. But the stone was not stolen during their ownership.
McLean died in , she bequeathed the diamond to her grandchildren through a will which insisted that her former property would remain in the custody of trustees until the eldest child had reached 25 years of age. This requirement would have prevented any sale for the next two decades. However, the trustees gained permission to sell her jewels to settle her debts, and in sold them to New York diamond merchant Harry Winston.
He purchased McLean's "entire jewelry collection". The diamond appeared on the television quiz show The Name's the Same , in an episode which first aired on August 16, ,  when a teenaged contestant with the actual name Hope Diamond was one of the mystery guests, as well as at the August Canadian National Exhibition.
https://hukusyuu-mobile.com/wp-content/reviews/1694-best-smartphone.php Smithsonian mineralogist George Switzer is credited with persuading jeweler Harry Winston to donate the Hope Diamond for a proposed national gem collection to be housed at the National Museum of Natural History. Winston had never believed in any of the tales about the curse; he donated the diamond with the hope that it would help the United States "establish a gem collection.
Winston's gift, according to Smithsonian curator Dr. Jeffrey Post, indeed helped spur additional gifts to the museum. For its first four decades in the National Museum of Natural History , the Hope Diamond lay in its necklace inside a glass-fronted safe as part of the gems and jewelry gallery, except for a few brief excursions: a exhibition to the Louvre ;  the Rand Easter Show in Johannesburg, South Africa;  and two visits back to Harry Winston's premises in New York City, once in ,  and once for a 50th anniversary celebration in The Hope Diamond is the most popular jewel on display and the collection's centerpiece.
In , the Smithsonian published a year-long computer-aided geometry research which officially acknowledged that the Hope Diamond is, in fact, part of the stolen French Blue crown jewel. In , the Smithsonian announced a temporary new setting for the jewel to celebrate a half-century at the National Museum of Natural History. Starting in September , the It had been removed from its setting for cleaning from time to time, but this was the first time it would be on public display by itself.
Previously it had been shown in a platinum setting, surrounded by 16 white pear-shaped and cushion-cut diamonds, suspended from a chain containing forty-five diamonds. The Hope returned to its traditional setting in late On November 18, , the Hope Diamond was unveiled and displayed at the Smithsonian in a temporary newly designed necklace called "Embracing Hope", created by the Harry Winston firm. The Hope Diamond also is resting on a new dark blue neck form, which the Harry Winston firm commissioned from display organization, Pac Team Group. Previously, the Hope Diamond had been displayed as a loose gem since late summer of when it was removed from its former Cartier-designed setting.
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